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Filament Winding: An In-depth Look at a Versatile Manufacturing Process

In modern manufacturing, filament winding technology is particularly important due to its efficiency and versatility. This technique uses continuous fiber materials, which are precisely controlled in terms of fiber and resin ratios and wound around a rotating mandrel, thus creating composite material products that are structurally strong and lightweight.
Continue reading to learn about the definition, materials, and applications of filament winding.

What Is Filament Winding?

Filament winding is a manufacturing technique primarily used to wrap continuous fibers around a rotating mandrel, creating hollow, cylindrical, or prism-shaped composite material structures. This technology is employed to produce various components such as pipes, tanks, and pressure vessels. Filament winding is a versatile and efficient method that allows for precise control over fiber placement and resin content during the winding process, resulting in high-strength, lightweight composite structures.

How Does the Filament Winding Process Work?

Filament Winding Manufactured Process

The filament winding process is a method for creating composite material structures, typically involving the wrapping of resin-impregnated continuous fibers around a rotating mandrel to form cylindrical or spherical structures. Here are the detailed steps involved in the process:

  1. Fiber Delivery: Continuous fibers, often referred to as “tows,” are unwound from spools. These fibers can be made from various materials, such as carbon fiber, glass fiber, or Kevlar.
  2. Resin Impregnation: After being unwound, the fibers pass through a resin bath where they are thoroughly impregnated with a matrix material, typically epoxy resin, polyester resin, or vinyl ester resin. This step is crucial as it ensures complete saturation of the fibers, vital for the structural integrity of the final product.
  3. Winding: The impregnated fibers are then wound onto the mandrel, which is shaped according to the desired geometry of the final product. The mandrel rotates, and the fiber delivery head moves horizontally or in other programmed patterns to lay down the fibers in precise geometric patterns. The angle of fiber winding, known as the winding angle, is tightly controlled to optimize the mechanical properties of the final product, such as strength and stiffness.
  4. Curing: After winding, the composite material needs to cure. This usually takes place in an oven, where the resin is hardened by heating, solidifying the composite structure. The curing process is essential for achieving desired material performance and dimensional stability.
  5. Mandrel Removal: Once the composite material has cured, the mandrel is removed. In some cases, the mandrel is designed to be part of the final product, such as in some types of pressure vessels. Otherwise, the mandrel is extracted, leaving a hollow composite structure.
  6. Finishing: The final product may undergo additional processes such as machining, grinding, or coating to meet specific requirements or enhance aesthetic appeal.

What Is the Origin of Filament Winding?

The origin of filament winding dates back to World War II when the technique was developed to support the Manhattan Project. George Lubin and Walt Greenberg, recognizing the need for lightweight plastic hoops, invented the winding process. In the early 1940s, Richard E. Young further developed modern filament winding techniques and submitted them to the U.S. government for use in rocket technology applications. After the war, filament winding was used to produce solid rocket motor casings.

What Is Another Term for Filament Winding?

Another term for filament winding is “filament composite winding.”

What Is the Equipment of Filament Winding?

The equipment used in the filament winding process includes several key components essential for efficiently and accurately manufacturing composite material structures:

  1. Spool: This is a frame that holds the fiber spools used during the winding process, such as glass or carbon fibers. It facilitates the smooth delivery of fibers to the resin bath and then onto the mandrel.
  2. Resin Bath: A container where fibers are impregnated with resin before being wound onto the mandrel. This step is crucial for ensuring that the fibers are fully saturated with the matrix material, which is typically a thermosetting or thermoplastic resin.
  3. Mandrel: The core rod around which the fibers are wound. The shape of the mandrel determines the shape of the final composite material product. The mandrel can be designed in various shapes, such as cylindrical, conical, or even complex geometrical shapes like rocket casings or helicopter blades.
  4. Fiber Delivery System: This includes a bracket that can move horizontally or in other programmed patterns to lay fibers in a controlled manner on the mandrel. This system controls the angle and pattern of fiber placement, which is crucial for achieving the desired mechanical properties of the final product.
  5. Curing Equipment: Usually includes ovens or autoclaves that heat the wound composite material to cure the resin. This process solidifies the composite material, essential for achieving the desired strength and durability.
  6. Control Software: Advanced filament winding machines are equipped with computer numerical control (CNC) systems and software, such as Cadwind, FiberGraphix, and Cadfil, which optimize the winding process and ensure that the machine movements are synchronized with design specifications.
  7. Auxiliary Equipment: This includes various additional tools and equipment, such as tension control systems, fiber cutting and adding systems, and mandrel extractors. These components support the main winding process, improving production efficiency and quality.

What Are the Factors That Affect the Strength of Filament-Wound Composite Tubes?

The strength of filament-wound composite tubes is influenced by several key factors:

  1. Fiber and Resin Type: The type of fibers used (such as carbon fiber, glass fiber, or basalt fiber) and the resin matrix significantly impact the mechanical properties of the composite tube. Different materials exhibit various levels of strength, stiffness, and environmental resistance.
  2. Winding Angle: The angle at which fibers are wound around the mandrel plays a crucial role in the mechanical properties of the composite tube. Different winding angles significantly affect the tube’s strength, stiffness, and deformation behavior under different loading conditions.
  3. Manufacturing Process: The specific methods and conditions used to manufacture the tube, including the tension of the fibers during the winding process and the curing of the resin, are critical for achieving optimal material performance.
  4. Environmental Conditions: Factors such as temperature and humidity during the manufacturing process and throughout the lifetime of the tube can affect the performance and durability of the composite material. Temperature, in particular, has been shown to have a significant impact on compressive strength.
  5. Physical Dimensions: The diameter and wall thickness of the tube determined during the winding process also affect the overall strength and performance of the final product.
  6. Load Conditions: The type of load (axial, radial, torsional) and the manner in which the load is applied affect the failure mechanisms and overall strength of the wound tube.

What Are the Types of Filament Winding?

Types of filament winding include:

  1. Wet Winding: In this method, fibers are unwound from rovings, impregnated with a resin mixture in a bath, and then wound onto the mandrel. This method ensures complete saturation of the fibers with resin, which is critical for the structural integrity of the final product.
  2. Dry Winding: This technique uses pre-impregnated fibers, i.e., fiber bundle composite fabrics. The fibers are already treated with resin before winding, making the process cleaner and the resin content more controllable. Dry winding is known for its high production efficiency and good product quality.
  3. Semi-Dry Winding: This method involves winding impregnated fibers onto the mandrel. It includes a set of drying equipment to remove solvents from the impregnated yarns, combining the advantages of wet and dry winding. This method aims to reduce the content of bubbles in the product, saving on pre-impregnation processes and equipment.

What Are the Applications of Filament Winding?

Due to its ability to produce lightweight, high-strength, and durable composite material structures, filament winding has a wide range of applications across various industries:

  1. Aerospace Industry: Fiber winding is used to manufacture parts for aircraft and spacecraft, such as fuel tanks for space shuttles.
  2. Automotive Industry: The process is used to produce high-performance, lightweight components such as steering wheels, drive shafts, and suspension systems.
  3. Sports Industry: Wound fibers are used to manufacture high-performance composite materials, such as golf clubs, fishing rods, and other sports equipment.
  4. Medical Industry: The technology is used to manufacture orthopedic implants and spinal rods among other components.
  5. Industrial Applications: Wound fibers are used to manufacture pipes, pressure vessels, and drive shafts, as well as for in-flight refueling of aircraft.
  6. Energy Industry: Wind turbine manufacturers use automatic winding systems to produce segmented blades used in turbines.
  7. Marine Industry: The process is used to manufacture yacht masts and boat oars/paddles.
  8. Infrastructure: Wound filaments are used to manufacture street light poles, utility poles, and transmission poles.
  9. Defense: Missile casings and other military applications leverage the strength and lightweight properties of wound fiber components.
  10. Consumer Products: Bicycle forks, bicycle rims, and lamp posts are also produced using wound fibers.

What Are the Benefits of Filament Winding?

The advantages of filament winding include:

  1. High Strength-to-Weight Ratio: Filament winding technology can produce structures with high strength yet lightweight, which is particularly beneficial for industries with high weight reduction requirements such as aerospace and automotive.
  2. Precision and Consistency: The automated nature of the process enhances the precision and consistency of production, which is crucial for high-performance applications, helping to strengthen quality control and product characteristics consistency.
  3. Efficiency: Fiber winding is an efficient method, especially in terms of material layup, providing faster and more economical production compared to other manufacturing processes.
  4. Cost Effectiveness: The automated process controls critical process parameters such as fiber tension and resin content, producing parts with minimal variability, thus offering a cost-effective means of component production.
  5. Versatility: This process can produce complex shapes and structures that are difficult or impossible to achieve with traditional manufacturing methods.
  6. Material Optimization: Fiber winding effectively utilizes the properties of composite materials by aligning fibers in specific directions, thus optimizing strength and durability.
  7. Customization: The filament winding method allows for precise control over the direction and position of fibers, thus customizing mechanical strength, stiffness, and conductivity to meet specific project requirements.
  8. Durability: Structures produced by filament winding are known for their durability, able to withstand extreme temperatures and environmental factors, and possessing inherent properties such as corrosion resistance, rot resistance, rust resistance, and decay resistance.
  9. Automation and Robotics Integration: The process is well-suited for automation and can be integrated with robotic programs, thereby enhancing production capacity and reducing the need for manual labor.
  10. Design Flexibility: Filament winding allows for adjustments in the layers of materials to meet the structural requirements under component loading conditions. It can also be supplemented by hand or roller winding for local reinforcement.

What Are the Limitations of Filament Winding?

The limitations of filament winding include:

  1. Design Restrictions: Fiber winding imposes restrictions on the design freedom of composite materials. It is primarily limited to producing enclosed convex structures, such as pipes, tanks, and sleeves. Low fiber angles (0 to 15 degrees), where 0 degrees refers to the angle along the axis of a tank or pipe, are challenging to produce.
  2. Complex Shapes and Curvatures: The process struggles to produce products with complex GRP shapes and curvature reversals, limiting the range of products that can be produced using this technique.
  3. Shear Strength and Elasticity: The shear strength between layers of the product is generally low, and the ultimate load capacity is also generally lower. The products are rigid but lack flexibility, which may be a disadvantage in applications requiring flexibility.
  4. Surface Finish: One of the limitations is the suboptimal external surface finish, which can affect the aesthetics and functionality of the final product.

What Are the Most Common Materials Used in Filament Winding?

The most commonly used materials in filament winding include:

  1. Fibers:
    • Carbon Fiber: Known for its high strength and stiffness, widely used in applications requiring superior mechanical performance.
    • Glass Fiber: Strikes a good balance between strength and cost, making it suitable for a wide range of applications.
    • Aramid Fiber (such as Kevlar): Known for its impact resistance and tensile strength, used in applications requiring high durability and impact resistance.
    • Basalt Fiber: Occasionally used, its properties are similar to glass fiber but with better thermal stability.
  2. Resins:
    • Epoxy Resin: Has excellent mechanical properties and good chemical resistance, commonly used in aerospace and automotive fields.
    • Polyester Resin: Commonly used due to its cost-effectiveness and ease of handling, suitable for less demanding applications.
    • Vinyl Ester Resin: Offers a good compromise between polyester and epoxy resins, with better water resistance and durability.
    • Phenolic Resin: Used for its flame retardancy and low smoke, very important in public transport and aerospace applications.

How Does the Strength of Filament-Wound Composite Tubes Compare to Other Manufacturing Techniques?

Due to several key factors, the strength of filament-wound composite tubes generally exceeds that of tubes manufactured by other techniques:

  1. Fiber Orientation: Fiber winding allows for precise control over fiber orientation, aligning fibers with the load direction, thus optimizing the mechanical properties of the composite material. This arrangement enhances the axial strength and stiffness of the tubes, making them ideal for applications requiring high load capacity.
  2. Material Utilization: Fiber winding effectively utilizes the properties of composite materials by strategically placing fibers in specific directions, thus optimizing strength and durability. This method allows for strategic placement of materials to achieve desired mechanical properties.
  3. Comparison with Pultrusion: While the pultrusion process can effectively produce long, uniform cross-section parts, its strength and stiffness generally cannot match that of filament-wound composite materials. In the pultrusion process, the orientation of fibers varies, compared to the more strategic arrangement in filament-wound composite materials, which reduces overall strength and stiffness.
  4. Compared to Other Techniques: Filament winding is known for producing parts with high dimensional accuracy, compared to other methods such as pultrusion, which is limited to straight or slightly curved shapes. This design flexibility also helps to enhance the overall strength of the final product, as composite materials can be custom-tailored to withstand specific stresses.

What Is Thermoplastic Filament Winding?

Thermoplastic filament winding is a specialized process within the broader category of filament winding, used for manufacturing composite material structures. This technique involves winding fiber-reinforced materials (usually pre-impregnated with thermoplastic resin) around a core or template. Unlike traditional thermoset resin systems, the thermoplastic resin in the filament winding process melts and cures upon heating during the winding process, eliminating the need for post-cure processing in an oven.

In the thermoplastic filament winding process, the fibers are usually already impregnated with resin, which melts under localized heating, allowing the tape to be easily wound around the mandrel and consolidated with the layer below. This process combines winding and consolidation into one step, thus being highly efficient. The online fusion of thermoplastic pre-impregnated materials is almost instantaneous, similar to a welding process, which significantly speeds up production and allows for greater geometric freedom in manufacturing.

Additionally, thermoplastic filament winding offers several advantages, such as the ability to produce recyclable parts, reduce the use of chemicals thereby enhancing environmental friendliness, and improve the safety and cleanliness of the manufacturing environment.

What Is Coreless Filament Winding?

Coreless filament winding is an advanced method of fiber winding that does not require the traditional mandrel, which is typically used as a template for fiber winding. Instead, this technique involves winding resin-impregnated fiber tows around anchor points, or using minimal, reconfigurable templates. This method allows for the production of geometrically complex fiber-reinforced architectural components without the constraints of a fixed core rod shape.

The coreless filament winding process is notable for its ability to produce unique large-scale fiber composite architectural components with minimal templating. It utilizes robotic manufacturing technology, suitable for producing personalized parts with varying fiber layouts. This method significantly reduces the need for molds or core molds, offering advantages in large-scale and custom applications.

Furthermore, coreless winding leverages a computational co-design framework, integrating manufacturing, quality assessment, and data integration among multiple disciplines. This interdisciplinary approach optimizes designs to achieve ideal performance and material efficiency, especially in architectural applications. The process is characterized by the interaction of fibers in space, with the final geometric shape of the produced parts being the result of this interaction, and initially indeterminate.

What Is the Function of the Filament Winding Mandrel?

The function of the filament winding mandrel is to act as a shape or tool during the filament winding process, providing the internal surface and shape for forming the wound product. It is central to fiber winding, and its shape determines the final shape of the manufactured composite material structure. The mandrel can be made from various materials, including metals such as steel or aluminum, and can be removed at the end of the winding process or, in some cases, retained as part of the final product, such as in pressure vessels.

How Strong Is the Filament Winding Pressure Vessel?

The strength of filament-wound pressure vessels is determined by several factors, including the materials used, winding patterns, and the tension applied during the winding process.

Typically, filament-wound products used for internal pressure applications have a longitudinal tensile strength of 16,000 psi, circumferential tensile strength of 40,000 psi, longitudinal compressive strength of 27,000 psi, and circumferential compressive strength of 37,000 psi. These values indicate that the vessels can withstand tremendous internal pressures without failing.

The design and analysis of filament-wound composite pressure vessels require careful consideration of the winding angle, as it affects the trajectory of fibers on the vessel surface, thereby influencing the strength of the vessel. Winding angles are crucial for optimizing the performance of composite materials, and the difference in angles between adjacent winding layers affects the winding pattern.

Materials used in filament winding, such as carbon fiber and epoxy resin, have high specific strength and stiffness, contributing to the overall strength of the pressure vessel. Additionally, the tension during the winding process is a critical factor, with experimental results indicating that the strength of the components depends on the degree of fiber tension; the greater the tension under fiber-dominated loading conditions, the higher the strength.


Filament winding is a robust and adaptable manufacturing technique that has revolutionized the production of composite material structures. Its applications span various industries due to the unique properties and efficiencies it offers. While there are certain limitations and challenges associated with filament winding, its advantages in terms of strength, customization, and efficiency make it a valuable method in the modern manufacturing landscape.
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